Antibakteriális szerek használata a társállatgyógyászatban I. Az antibiotikumok általános bemutatása, kombinációs lehetőségek Penicillinek, cefalosporinok, laktamáz-inhibitorok - Irodalmi összefoglaló
Veres, Adrienn Mercédesz
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SUMMARY After inventing the first antibiotic, penicillin, antibacterial medicines became the part of everyday therapy in the veterinary practice. The rapid spread and increase of antimicrobial resistance is an internationally recognised emerging clinical problem, dictating decreased usage of antibacterial products against bacteria. As they are essential assets of tackling infectious and zoonotic diseases, the inappropriate use opens a door for rendering them ineffective. Therefore, it is of upmost importance, to only apply these products solely when required and adequate, to prescribe them in the required dosage and strictly for the necessary length of time, during the course of treatment. Besides it being the responsibility of veterinarians, it is also a shared and joint duty with the medical world to ensure responsible management, raise public health awareness in relation to antimicrobial resistance, to educate that antibiotics are not always the answer. Namely, few of these obligations are informing the owners, how regular pet health checks can be beneficial, how symptomatic relief can optimise therapeutic effects in the long run, to eventually decrease the risk of selection for resistant bacteria. Furthermore, busting the myths about antibiotics and their role can help to retain effective antimicrobials for clinical use. In the first part of this review the authors summarize the general traits of antibiotics, emphasizing pharmacokinetics, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance interactions between medicines and the possibilities for combining different antibacterial agents. Broad antibacterial spectrum, bactericidal mode of action and large therapeutic index make penicillins and cephalosporins widely used in the small animal practice. In the second part of this review the authors summarize the most important findings about β-lactam antibiotics, including their antibacterial spectrum, the types of bacterial resistance, pharmacokinetic behaviour, clinical usage and lastly their adverse effects.