|dc.description.abstract||In this paper, the latest literature of the use of cannabidiol (CBD) in equine medicine is summarised by the authors, including the pharmacology of cannabinoids, safetiness of their use, experiments in pharmacodynamics and major indication of its use in horses. Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds isolated from the cannabis plant and are able to form stable bonds with cannabinoid receptors. CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. In humans and other species (e.g. rodents, dogs, etc.) cannabinoids are proven to have anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsive, anxiolytic and analgesic effects. In veterinary medicine, cannabinoids have been studied in cases of osteoarthritis,
neuropathies, epilepsy, allergic and respiratory diseases. In equine medicine, the vast majority of publications focus on the pharmacokinetics of CBD, but true efficiency is anecdotal. The usual dose of CBD was given between 0.1–3 mg/kg. The highest plasma concentration of CBD was measured just above 50 ng/ml, which was the result of orally given full spectrum CBD pellet in 2 mg/kg dose. In one study, CBD oil was given transmucosally in a low dose of 0.1 mg/kg, which reached a significant 27 ng/ml plasma concentration of CBD. Therapeutic effect is reached between the plasma concentration of 200-800 ng/ml in canines. Exact therapeutic plasma concentration in horses has not been specified yet,
which means that low biological utilization of CBD does not indicate low efficiency.
There are several types of CBD products available for horse owners, however only a handful of products passed quality control inspections. This fact indicates that the manufacturer cannot prove the existence of the promised CBD concentration. The effectiveness of CBD in equine medicine is still not proven, however, based on the studies so far, further examinations of its pharmacokinetics are necessary.||en_US