Gyógynövények használata a cukorbetegség terápiájában - Irodalmi összefoglaló
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in dogs and cats. Cats rarely develop type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent), but type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent, associated with obesity) has growing importance. Approximately 80-90% of diabetic cats have type 2 diabetes. In contrast, type 1 diabetes is common in dogs while obesity-induced insulin resistance does not progress to type 2 diabetes. There are more than 200 herbs with antidiabetic effects. The most commonly mentioned herbs are cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum verum), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre), curcuma (Curcuma longa), ginseng (Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius), ginger (Zingiber officinale), bitter cucumber (Citrullus colocynthis) and bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Most of these have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. High number of human and laboratory animal studies are published, but much less is known about the physiological function and optimal dosage of these herbs in dogs and cats. In comparison with human studies, the number of published dog (n = 8) and cat (n = 1) papers discussed in this review is limited. These studies used alloxan-induced diabetic dogs, type 1 diabetic dogs, insulin resistant cats, or healthy animals. Most of the studies resulted in decreased blood sugar but bitter cucumber had dosage dependent mild (diarrhoea) to severe (death) side effects. Based on the results we can conclude that the tested herbs having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (rosemary, basil, narrow-leaved purple coneflower, European blueberries, curcuma and milk thistle) are efficient and safe. In alloxan-induced diabetic dogs, fenugreek or fenugreek combined with garlic and black seeds seemed to be efficient. In insulin resistant cats roselle showed positive results. More scientific studies involving naturally occurring diabetic patients are needed to establish the optimal dosage and type of medicinal plants.