A robotizált fejési rendszerek elterjedését és hatékony működtetését befolyásoló tényezők - Irodalmi összefoglaló
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SUMMARY The present review describes the benefits and challenges of automatic milking systems in comparison with conventional parlour milking. Despite high investment costs, the number of robotic milking units in operation has now reached more than 38,000 on a global scale. The reasons of growing popularity are the manifold advantages with respect to manpower requirements, animal welfare and productivity. Labour force requirements and limits of automatization are reviewed. The effects of less frequent human interaction – in terms of both eco-nomical and animal behaviour aspects – are presented in view of international and own research results. The paper also deals with how individual traceability of detailed production and health parameters can improve management decisions and system development. Information on financial planning, maintenance costs and cost-effective operation are also provided. The expected benefits of switch-ing from parlour milking to automatic milking can only be fully exploited on the grounds of thorough planning, and technical and professional preparedness. The financial and animal health aspects of pre-qualification and installation of automatic systems, as well as specific management conditions and feeding strat-egies necessary for effective operation are discussed. Prerequisites including good environmental hygiene and cow cleanliness, adequate udder formation, calm temperament and good claw health are also summarized. The review also gives insights on ethological considerations during installation regarding barn layout, utilization of the milking unit and differences in cow traffic systems, as well as adaptation to the novel milking technology. Authors draw the conclusion that the challenges of modern agriculture can only be overcome by targeted technical development supported by environmental risk assessment based on extensive interdisciplinary research.