Mikroszatellita-markerek tesztelése dámszarvasok egyedi azonosítása céljából
Background: The fallow deer (Dama dama) represents a significant game management value in Hungary due to its game meat and antler trophies. Unfortunately, traffic accidents and illegal activities, such as poaching or illegal trading, threaten the species and its value. Objectives: The aim of the authors is to develop a set of tetranucleotide microsatellite markers that are capable of individual identification of fallow deer to help law enforcement prove the abovementioned cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 fallow deer individuals from three Hungarian sampling areas were examined. The authors tested 31 tetranucleotide microsatellites on the samples which were originally designed for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Published PCR protocols were available for all markers on the original species, which were tested and optimized on fallow deer samples based on the visualized PCR products on agarose gel. Afterwards, they were examined by capillary electrophoresis so that the alleles could be separated and detected, and the polymorphic markers sorted. Results and Discussion: Only 25 markers provided PCR products of adequate quality and quantity, from which the capillary electrophoresis detected a total of four polymorphic markers with two or three alleles. This shows a possible low genetic variation in the Hungarian fallow deer population which is in accordance with other international research on the species. It is believed that during the Pleistocene the extreme climate caused a major reduction of the species, which was followed by reintroduction by people, both of which resulted in the experienced general low genetic diversity due to a genetic bottleneck, founder effect, inbreeding, and genetic drift. As the number of polymorphic markers and the level of allele polymorphism are low, the set of microsatellites is not yet suitable for individual identification. The testing of further markers is needed and more fallow deer samples from different regions should be examined, too.